The Blueberry Allergy: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention Options

Blueberries, commonly praised for their nutritional value, can cause distress for a particular set of people – those who have a blueberry allergy. This article will explore the details of what triggers blueberry allergies, the symptoms they induce, methods of diagnosis, and effective strategies for handling this distinctive type of fruit allergy.

Ripe blueberries on a blueberry bush.

Understanding Blueberry Allergies

Understanding blueberry allergies involves recognizing and comprehending the body’s immune response to certain substances found in blueberries. Blueberry allergies occur when the immune system overreacts to a harmless substance in the blueberries and considers it a threat.

Any sort of reaction to blueberries that does not cause an immune response would be considered an intolerance, not an allergy.

Is it common to be allergic to blueberries?

A man thinking about something with question marks all around him.

No, developing an allergy to blueberries is not a common occurrence. In fact, blueberry allergies are considered quite rare when compared to more prevalent food allergies such as those associated with nuts, wheat, and eggs.

Globally, there have been only a handful of documented cases where individuals have reported allergic reactions specifically linked to the consumption of blueberries.

Blueberry allergies are rare, but they do exist!

This rarity might be attributed to the fact that blueberries, in general, are not known to be a highly allergenic food. They are more commonly celebrated for their health benefits and nutritional value rather than being a source of allergic reactions.

What makes you allergic to blueberries?

Potential blueberry allergy triggers infographic. Salicylates: Salicylates, originating from salicylic acid, are natural compounds present in specific plants, including blueberries. Lipid Transfer Proteins: Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), identified as food allergens in blueberries, are naturally occurring proteins in plants, serving to safeguard the plant from potential harm.

There have been no definitive allergens characterized by blueberries, but there is some evidence that a reaction to salicylates and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) may be the reason for allergy-like symptoms.


Salicylates are derivatives of salicylic acid, a naturally occurring compound found in certain plants, like blueberries. A salicylate intolerance could give you symptoms similar to an allergy after consuming blueberries.

Lipid Transfer Proteins

Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are considered a food allergen found in blueberries. These proteins are found in plants to protect the plant from harm, like diseases and pests.

LTP allergies are still being studied, and not much is known about them. LTPs are known to be present in foods such as:

  1. Almonds
  2. Apples
  3. Apricots
  4. Avocados
  5. Bananas
  6. Bell peppers
  7. Blueberries
  8. Broccoli
  9. Carrots
  10. Celery
  11. Cherries
  12. Cucumbers
  13. Dried fruits
  14. Grapes
  15. Hazelnuts
  16. Kiwi
  17. Peaches
  18. Peanuts
  19. Pears
  20. Plums
  21. Potatoes
  22. Strawberries
  23. Tomatoes
  24. Walnuts
  25. Zucchinis

It’s important to note that the provided list is not exhaustive and serves as a representative sample of foods known to contain Lipid Transfer Proteins (LTPs).

Blueberry Allergy Causes and Risk Factors

Blueberry allergies, like other food allergies, can develop due to a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Here are the main potential causes and risk factors associated with blueberry allergies:

Blueberry allergy causes and risk factors infographic: Blueberry allergies can emerge from a range of complex genetic and environmental factors. Here are some potential causes and risk factors linked to blueberry allergies. Cross-Reactivity: Foods that share similar proteins to one another can be linked to a blueberry allergy. Genetics: A family history of blueberry allergies can put you at a higher risk for developing a blueberry allergy. Gut Health: An unhealthy gut microbiome may put you at an elevated risk for developing allergic conditions. Immune System Sensitization: If the immune system becomes hyperresponsive to certain proteins in blueberries, subsequent exposure can trigger an allergic reaction.


Cross-reactivity in food allergies occurs when proteins in one type of food resemble proteins in another, leading to an allergic response to both substances. While cross-reactivity can vary among individuals, some foods are known to be commonly associated with cross-reactivity to blueberries. Here is a list of foods that may cross-react:

  • Nuts: Almonds and hazelnuts are examples of nuts that may exhibit cross-reactivity with blueberries.
  • Other Berries: Strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries may trigger cross-reactivity due to shared protein similarities.
  • Stone Fruits: Fruits like cherries, peaches, plums, and apricots may cross-react with blueberries.
  • Tree Pollen: Individuals allergic to certain tree pollens, such as birch or alder, may experience cross-reactivity with blueberries.
  • Vegetables: Certain vegetables like carrots and celery have proteins that may cross-react with blueberries.

Genetic Predisposition to a Blueberry Allergy

Vibrantly colored genetics strand with rna and dna.

The likelihood of developing a blueberry allergy can be influenced by genetic predisposition. Individuals with a familial history of blueberry allergies face an elevated risk of developing similar allergic responses.

Genetic factors play a pivotal role in determining an individual’s susceptibility to allergic reactions, underscoring the complex interplay between genetics and the immune system.

When there is a family history of blueberry allergies, the genetic makeup passed down through generations can contribute to an increased vulnerability to allergic sensitivities.

Gut Health

a woman with her hand slightly pressing on her stomach.

The health of the gastrointestinal (GI) system, including the balance of gut bacteria, may play a role in the development of food allergies. A disrupted gut microbiome has been associated with an increased risk of allergic conditions.

Maintaining a healthy gut through a balanced diet and lifestyle is key to supporting immune system tolerance and reducing the risk of allergic reactions.

Immune System Sensitization

Allergic reactions frequently stem from the heightened sensitivity of the immune system to particular proteins. In the context of blueberry allergies, if the immune system becomes sensitized to specific proteins within blueberries, subsequent exposure can lead to the initiation of an allergic response.

Repeated exposures to the allergen further amplify the immune response, making subsequent reactions more pronounced. The sensitization process is complex and varies among individuals.

Blueberry Allergy Symptoms and Reactions

Blueberry allergy symptoms infographic. People allergic to blueberries may encounter a spectrum of symptoms that differ in intensity. Typical signs of a blueberry allergy may involve: Abdominal pain, Difficulty breathing, Diarrhea, Dizziness, Hives, Nausea, Oral Allergy Syndrome, Runny Nose, Skin, Rash, Swelling, Vomiting.

Allergic reaction symptoms to blueberries can differ among individuals, spanning from mild to severe. The following is a compilation of potential reactions and symptoms associated with blueberry allergies:

  • Abdominal Pain: Pain or discomfort in the abdominal area.
  • Diarrhea: Abnormal, loose, or watery stools.
  • Difficulty Breathing: Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing.
  • Dizziness: Feeling lightheaded or dizzy.
  • Hives: Raised, red, itchy welts on the skin.
  • Nausea: Feeling of sickness or queasiness.
  • Oral Allergy Syndrome: Itching/swelling of lips, mouth, or throat.
  • Runny Nose: Excessive nasal discharge.
  • Skin Rash: An outbreak of red, itchy, or swollen skin.
  • Swelling: Generalized swelling, often in the face or extremities.
  • Vomiting: Forceful expulsion of stomach contents.

If you suspect a blueberry allergy, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and guidance. In severe cases, anaphylaxis may occur, characterized by a rapid onset of severe symptoms that can be life-threatening, seek Immediate medical attention.

Diagnosing A Blueberry Allergy

doctors office with a stethoscope on the wall.

Diagnosing a blueberry allergy involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and specific allergy tests. Here are the common steps in diagnosing a blueberry allergy:

  • Blood Tests: Specific IgE antibody tests, can measure the levels of antibodies produced in response to blueberry allergens. Elevated levels may suggest an allergy.
  • Elimination Diet: This involves removing blueberries and related foods from your diet for a specific period and then reintroducing them to observe any allergic reactions.
  • Medical History: Your doctor will ask about your symptoms, their onset, and their frequency.
  • Oral Food Challenge: Under controlled conditions, your doctor may perform an oral food challenge. In a medical setting, you will consume gradually increasing amounts of blueberries to monitor for any allergic reactions.
  • Physical Examination: Conducted to assess your overall health and look for physical signs of an allergic reaction, such as hives, swelling, or skin rashes.

Treatment of Blueberry Allergies

Fresh picked blueberries that were recently rinsed.

Blueberry allergy treatments vary based on the severity of the allergic reactions. There is no cure for food allergies, just treatment options for the symptoms. The most common treatments for blueberry allergies are avoidance, antihistamines, and epinephrine.

Avoid Blueberries and Blueberry Ingredients

Picked blueberries resting in the leaves of a blueberry plant.

The primary and most effective treatment for blueberry allergy is to avoid consuming blueberries and products containing them.

By avoiding blueberries, no blueberry allergy symptoms should surface, meaning no further treatment is necessary. This includes being cautious about cross-contamination in food preparation.

OTC or Prescription Medications

Over-the-counter or prescribed antihistamines can help alleviate mild allergic symptoms such as itching, hives, or sneezing. These medications work by blocking histamine, a chemical released during an allergic reaction.

The most effective antihistamine for food allergies varies from person to person and should be discussed with your doctor.

Epinephrine During Emergencies

For severe cases of blueberry allergy cases, epinephrine is usually prescribed. Epinephrine is an auto-injector (EPIPEN®) that is typically prescribed for use in emergency allergic-reaction situations.

Prevention Tips for Blueberry Allergies

Blueberry allergy prevention tips infographic. Avoid Cross-Contamination, Avoid Cross-Reactive Foods, Check Food Labels, Communicate Your Allergies Have Medication on Hand, Seek Professional Medical Advice, Stay Alert in Social Situations, Wear an Allergen Bracelet.

A combination of vigilance, clear communication, and preventive strategies contributes to a safer and more comfortable experience for individuals with a blueberry allergy. Here are proactive tips for preventing blueberry allergy symptoms:

  • Avoid Cross-Contamination: If you or a loved one prepares meals at home, use separate cutting boards, knives, and utensils for blueberries to prevent cross-contamination with other foods.
  • Avoid Cross-Reactive Foods: including, other berries, stone fruits, nuts, and certain vegetables.
  • Check Food Labels: Blueberries might be present in a variety of food products, including unexpected ones. Cultivate the habit of thoroughly reading food labels to identify any ingredients derived from blueberries.
  • Communicate Your Allergies: Ensure that you communicate your blueberry allergy to friends, family, coworkers, and restaurant staff. Clear communication is essential in preventing unintentional exposure.
  • Have Medication On Hand: If your healthcare provider has prescribed it, keep an epinephrine auto-injector with you at all times. Swiftly administering it in the event of accidental exposure and the emergence of severe symptoms can be life-saving.
  • Seek Advice from a Healthcare Professional: Consult with an allergist or healthcare expert to confirm the presence of a blueberry allergy and to discuss personalized prevention strategies.
  • Stay Alert in Social Situations: Whether at social events, parties, or potlucks, make it a habit to ask about the ingredients in dishes. Some individuals might not be conscious of particular food allergies, emphasizing the importance of being proactive.
  • Wear an Allergen Bracelet: Having a medical alert bracelet that signals your blueberry allergy can be beneficial, particularly in situations where verbal communication may be difficult.

Frequently Asked Questions

Whether you’re exploring the possibility of a blueberry allergy, managing one, or supporting someone who is, this FAQ section is designed to address common questions and provide you with valuable insights.

Can you be allergic to blueberries, but not strawberries?

Yes, it is possible to be allergic to blueberries but not strawberries. People can have allergies to specific proteins found in one type of fruit while not reacting to those in another.

Why do I suddenly have a blueberry allergy?

A sudden allergy to blueberries can emerge at any stage of life, and the specific triggers can vary among individuals. Common triggers are immune system changes, environmental exposures, and gut health.

Can a blueberry allergy cause a skin rash?

Yes, a blueberry allergy can potentially cause a skin rash. Allergic reactions to blueberries, like other allergies, can manifest in various ways, and skin reactions are common symptoms.

Are blueberries a major food allergen?

Blueberries are not considered a major food allergen. The term “major food allergens” refers to specific foods that account for the majority of allergic reactions.